danish memo

Pronunciation

Æ Ø Å

Æ is pronounced like [ai] (lait)

Ø is pronounced like [eu] (heureux)

Å is pronounced like [o] (bol)

Soft D

When to use the soft d :

Exceptions :

Here's a pretty good video to help with the pronunciation.

Grammar

Grammatical gender

en : common gender

et : neutral gender

GroupSingular indefiniteSingular definitePlural indefinitePlural definite
1en bilbilenbilerbilerne
2en damedamendamerdamerne
3et hushusethusehusene
4en filmfilmenfilm-filmene

Possessive pronouns

PersonSingular common genderSingular neutral genderPlural
jegmin bilmit husmine biler/huse
dudin bildit husdine biler/huse
han/hunsin bilsit hussine biler/huse
hanhans bilhans hushans biler/huse
hunhendes bilhendes hushendes biler/huse
vivores bilvores husvores biler/huse
ijeres biljeres husjeres biler/huse
dederes bilderes husderes biler/huse

When to use hans and hendes :

Attributive adjective

GenderAttributive adjectiveExampleTranslation
Singular commonBase formvinen er godthe wine is good
Singular neutralBase form + -tteaterstykket er godtthe theatre piece is good
Plural common/neutralBase form + -eteaterstykkerne er godethe wines are good

Doubling last consonants

A name finishing by a brief vowel followed by a consonant will double the consonant in singular definite and plural forms.

GroupSingular indefiniteSingular definitePlural indefinitePlural definite
1en sønsønnensønnersønnerne
2en busbussenbusserbusserne
3en natnattennætternætterne
4en kopkoppenkopperkopperne

Short answers

Used to avoid answering a question by Yes or No only.

If the question contains a modal verb (vil, skal, må, kan) or an auxiliary verb : the verb is reused in the answer.

Construction :

Example : Har du en kæreste? Ja, det har jeg. - Do you have a girlfriend? Yes, I do.

If the question doesn't contain such verb : the verb gør is used instead.

Construction :

Example : Arbejder du i weekenden? Je det gør jeg. - Are you working on the weekend? Yes, I do.

Subject inversion

There are three scenarios for wich the subject is inverted :

  1. When asking a question (see Conjugation section below).
  2. When starting a sentence with a complement or adverb : I weekenden arbejder jeg. - On weekends I work.
  3. When starting a sentence with a subordinate proposal : Når jeg arbejder, drikker jeg meget kaffe. - When I work, I drink a lot of coffee.

Dynamic and static prepositions

Vocabulary

Short sentences

Ja, det gør jeg : Yes, I do

Vi ses senere : See you later

Hvor skal du hen ? : Where are you going ? hen is an adverb that indicates movement

Hvor arbejder du henne ? : Where are you working ? henne is an adverb that indicates immobility

Hvornår kommer du hjem ? : When are you coming home ? hjem is an adverb that indicates movement

Er du hjemme ? : Are you home? hjemme is an adverb that indicates immobility

Om en halv time : In hal an hour

Nogle : Some

I weekenden : The weekend

Jeg er 28 år : I'm 28

Hvad et der galt : What's wrong?

Interrogative words

Hvor : Where

Hvem : Who

Hvad : What

Hvornår : When

Hvofor : Why

Hvordan : How

Useful words

Mange : Many

Meget : Much

Numbers

NumberDanishCardinal
1en /etførste
2toanden
3tretredje
4firefjerde
5femfemte
6sekssjette
7syvsyvende
8otteottende
9niniende
10titiende
11elleveellevte
12tolvtolvte
13trettentrettende
14fjortenfjortende
15femtenfemtende
16sekstensekstende
17syttensyttende
18attenattende
19nittennittende
20tyvetyvende

Days

DanishEnglish
MandagMonday
TirsdagTuesday
OnsdagWednesday
TorsdagThursday
FredagFriday
LørdagSaturday
SøndagSunday

Conjugation

Personal pronouns

DanishEnglish
jegI
duyou
han / hun / den / dethe / she / it
viwe
iyou
dethey

Infinitive

Most of the time finishing with -e and preceded by at.

Example : at komme.

Present

Most of the time finishing with -r.

Example : jeg kommer.

Questions

To ask a question, invert subject and verb position in the sentence.

Negation

To use the negation use ikke after the verb.

Negative questions

Construction : Verb + subject + ikke.

At skulle (should) :

Can be used to express the future.

Construction : Present form of at skulle + infinitive of main verb.

Example : Jeg skal arbejde i weekenden - I will work this weekend.

At kunne (could/know) :

Is used to express possibility and knowledge.

Example for possibility : Jeg kan ikke komme i dag - I can't come today.

Example for knowledge : Jeg kan tale dansk - I can talk danish.

At måtte (to be allowed to) :

Is used for :

Construction : Må + subject + infinitive of the verb + object

Example : Må jegryge en cigaret ? - Can i smoke a cigarette ?

Example : Det regner så jeg må tage bilen. - It's raining therefor I need to take the car.

At burde (should) :

Is used to give advices.

Construction : Present form of at burde + infinitive of main verb

Example : Du bør arbejde mindre. - You should work less.

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